Yoga is a science that explains the relationship between physical, mental, and spiritual to achieve a holistic health system which is formed from ancient Indian culture. Yoga was first introduced in the Yoga Sutras book written by Patanjali, a legend from India who lived around 200 to 500 BC (Sindhu, 2014: 30).
The term Yoga comes from the ancient Sanskrit word yuj which means to unite. Yoga has three different meanings: Absorption (samadhi (yujyate), connecting (yunakti), and restraint (yojyanti). However, the key meanings commonly used are meditation (dhyana) and unification (yukti).
Yoga is a union of the body, mind, and soul or the limitation of thoughts that are always in motion or a systematic system of doing spiritual practice to achieve inner calm and doing physical exercises to achieve physical and spiritual health so it is called Jiwan Mukti.
Types of Yoga
According to Giri (2006), based on Hindu religious literature, Yoga is classified into several types, namely:
- Hatha Yoga: Hatha Yoga is a training system that uses various posture-forming techniques (asanas) accompanied by breathing techniques (pranayama) to achieve a balance between two different forces in the body, such as the upper body and lower body, the left side of the body and the body. right side, inhale and exhale, positive energy and negative energy, and so on.
- Bhakti Yoga: Bhakti yoga is yoga to focus on the heart. If a meditator is successful in practicing it, then he will be able to see the strengths of others and ways of dealing with things. The success of this yoga also makes the yogis more compassionate and accepts everything around them, because in this yoga it is taught to love nature and have faith in God.
- Raja Yoga: Raja Yoga is yoga that focuses on meditation and contemplation techniques. This yoga will later lead to a way of self-mastery as well as respecting yourself and your surroundings. Raja yoga is the basis of the yoga sutra.
- Jnana Yoga: Jnana Yoga is yoga that employs methods for gaining wisdom and knowledge. This technique tends to combine intelligence and wisdom so that later you get a life that can accept all philosophies and religions.
- Karma Yoga: Karma Yoga is yoga that believes in reincarnation. Here you will be made to be selfless, believing that your current behavior will have an effect on the life to come.
- Tantra Yoga: Tantra Yoga is a yoga that is slightly different from other yoga, some even consider it similar to witchcraft. This technique in yoga consists of truth (truth) and mystical things (mantras). The purpose of this technique is to be able to appreciate lessons and life experiences.
According to Somvir (2006), there are several types of yoga that develop in society, namely as follows:
- Ananda Yoga, Ananda yoga focuses on gentle postures designed to transfer energy to the brain and prepare the body for meditation. Ananda Yoga focuses on proper body alignment and controlled breathing.
- Iyengar Yoga, Iyengar Yoga is suitable for people who prefer the precision and mechanics of the body to body movements. This type prefers the perfect arrangement of movements through alignment techniques at high precision to achieve maximum benefits for health.
- Kundalini Yoga, Kundalini Yoga combines repetitive movements, breathing exercises, chanting, and meditation to build up spiritual energy that is said to lie at the base of the human body (or the floor of the human pelvis). Each kundalini practice session has a specific purpose, such as building the immune system.
- Bikram Yoga, This yoga practice is done indoors that is heated between 36 and 42 degrees Celsius to stimulate the body to release toxins through sweat and help stretch the body further. Each practice consists of two pranayama techniques and 24 types of asanas.
- Ashtanga Yoga, Ashtanga Vinyasa Yoga is the name given to the yoga system taught by Sri K. Pattabhi Jois. The Ashtanga style of yoga demands physical strength because it involves synchronizing breathing with a progressive series. Ashtanga yoga can improve circulation, flexibility, stamina, strong spiritual light, and a calm mind.
- Jivamukti Yoga, Jivamukti yoga was developed in 1986 by Sharon Gannon and David Life. The Jivamukti yoga method reveals the spiritual and ethical aspects of yoga practice. Jivamukti Yoga is a powerful form of asana with an emphasis on religious studies, Sanskrit chanting, vegetarianism, nonviolence, meditation, devotion to god.
- Sivananda Yoga, This type of yoga is suitable for those who want a yoga practice that includes physical movement and devotion yoga or yoga that prioritizes dedication. Each exercise includes pranayama, asana, and relaxation exercises.
- Kripalu Yoga, Kripalu is a Yoga that aims to increase awareness. Emphasizing awareness of breath, movement, and straightness, Kripalu is a sign of wisdom regarding the body. This style also encourages yoga students to respect the boundaries that concern the body.
- Meditation Yoga, Meditation Yoga is done with relaxation which involves emptying the mind of all the things that are interesting, burdensome, or anxious in our daily life. The literal meaning of meditation is the activity of understanding the mind, thinking, pondering.
- Prenatal Yoga, Prenatal Yoga is a special yoga program for pregnancy with techniques and intensity that has been adapted to the physical and psychological needs of pregnant women and the fetus in their womb. This program emphasizes yoga posture techniques, breathing exercises, relaxation, visualization, and meditation techniques which are useful as self-help media that will provide comfort, peace, as well as strengthen oneself during pregnancy.
- Viniyoga, Used as a therapeutic practice for people who have suffered injuries or after surgery. Viniyoga has gentle, healing movements tailored to each person’s body type and needs as they grow and change.
- Acro Yoga, The definition of acro yoga is a type of yoga where every movement that is carried out contains acrobatic elements.
Purpose and Benefits of Yoga
The goal of Yoga is to expand human consciousness to such an extent that it can be equated with the consciousness of the universe. This has to be achieved by the realization of the spiritual principles in our body, there are physical and mental principles and it is actually our own eternal and true personality.
According to Sindhu (2014: 34), yoga has good benefits if it is done regularly and regularly, namely as follows:
- Improve the work function of the endocrine (hormonal) glands in the body.
- Increase blood circulation to all cells of the body and brain.
- Forms a firmer posture and muscles that are more flexible and stronger.
- Increase lung capacity when breathing.
- Remove toxins from the body (detoxification).
- Rejuvenates body cells and slows down aging.
- Purify the central nerves found in the spine.
- It reduces body, mind, and mental tension and makes it stronger when dealing with stress.
- Provides an opportunity to experience deep relaxation.
- Increase awareness of the environment.
- Increase self-confidence and ability to think positively.